Cross-referencing Terminology

Endnotes and footnotes can include far more than just bare-bones citations. To point to extra sources, scholars use signal phrases and abbreviations, but they are not all interchangeable. These quick guidelines will help you mean what you say and say what you mean. see: Use this to suggest your reader take a look at a source for a point or fact that you have not already attributed to another source and that does not require a citation (i.e., is not a quotation or paraphrase). 77. See Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (New York: W. W. Norton, 1999). see also: This is conventionally used in indexes, but it has a place in citations as well. Just be sure to use it in a way distinct from your use of see, for instance: 22. Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White (New York: Routledge, 2008), 33. See also Nell Irvin Painter, The History of White People (New York: W. W. Norton, 2010). In the following example, see is preferable because also would be redundant: the introductory phrase already includes the word further. 14. For further analysis, see Martha C. Nussbaum, Women and Human Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). cf.: This abbreviation is not synonymous with see or see also. Instead, it means “compare” or “see, by way of comparison.” You may, for instance, want to indicate that the source does not agree with your in-text point. Or you may want to reference differing opinions on the matter at hand. Often, though, cf. just indicates that the source does not precisely agree with aforementioned sources...

TWEED Does Documentation

You already know how important documentation is for academic writing. You want to give credit where credit is due, leave breadcrumbs for readers interested in following up on sources you used, and simply produce professional-looking writing. All of these aims are achieved by thorough, consistent, and clear documentation. Good news! TWEED does Cite Management: editing, formatting, and wrangling your source documentation. Taking care of footnotes, parenthetical citations, and reference lists can all be so frustrating and time-consuming. Documentation is one area of scholarly writing that can be rather easily delegated to a professional, and doing so ultimately saves you a bundle in time, energy, and sanity. You can hand the documentation portion of your writing projects over to TWEED. What’s vexing you? Generating a bibliography, reference list, or works cited page from sources cited in your main-body text Formatting citations: parenthetical, footnotes, endnotes Managing subsequent notes: shortened references and instances of Ibid. Locating proper citation paradigms for tricky sources: public documents, legal works, unpublished manuscripts, and online content Handling ethnographic research Elegantly combining citations and substantive notes Formatting bibliographies (single-spaced but with double spacing between entries?!) Double-checking references created by citation software (these programs make mistakes—and they rely on information being correctly input into their databases first) All major scholarly citation styles are supported: Chicago, MLA, and APA. TWEED can also standardize the treatment of headings and subheadings throughout your document(s), create tables of contents, and implement complex page numbering systems. Hand over your thorniest, most tangled documentation projects! You’ll be relieved to be free of them, and TWEED will present you with professionally formatted citations and source lists...

Research Tool: Google Scholar Alerts

Good news! You can now set up automatic email alerts to keep up with new scholarship on whatever research topic you choose. You are probably already familiar with Google Scholar, the search engine that allows you to search academic journals, books, abstracts, and legal material. To receive regular updates about new works related to your search query, simply perform a Google Scholar search and click on the envelope icon at the top of the results page. You’ll enter your email address and select the number of new search results you would like to see in each message. See this post from ResourceShelf on advanced options for Google Scholar alerts. You can also set up Google alerts for news items if current events interest you. Unlike Google Scholar alerts, these don’t have to be emailed to you; an RSS reader can also retrieve them (choose Deliver to: Feed). ~ TWEED offers services and packages for all your academic editing...

Ask TWEED: Is Citing Online Journal Databases Necessary?

Dear TWEED Editing: I have a question for you, Mistress Tweed. My students informed me recently that MLA requires that bibliographic citations obtained through a database require that the database be included in the citation. So their citations end up looking like this: DeRogatis, Amy. “Born again is a sexual term”: demons, STDs, and God’s healing sperm.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 77.2 (2009): 275-302. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials. EBSCO. Web. 5 May 2010. Is this legit? —S. M. Well, TWEEDLE, I think it’s more than legit: your students are covering all of their bases. If a student uses an academic database for full-text content, quoting and paraphrasing from that digital version, then it is appropriate to include the extra information. Why would this additional location information be necessary? The MLA Handbook explains, “In some databases, typographic features and even the pagination found in print versions may be altered or lost. Sometimes copyrighted third-party materials (illustrations or text) in a print version may have been eliminated because permission for the electronic publication could not be cleared. Web presentations of periodicals may include enhancements, such as hypertextual links, sound recordings, and film clips, that are not present in their print counterparts.” (I retrieved that from 5.6.4, p. 192, of the seventh edition.) Chicago and APA basically concur. However, the formatting of the example you give needs some tweaking. The example looks indeed like it came right from the citation function within ATLA (the religious studies database) directly, but in this case at least it seems that ATLA has improperly formatted the MLA citation to its own content....

Ask TWEED: How Do I Cite DVD Bonus Features?

Dear TWEED Editing: My roommate is doing a paper on a film and wants to quote the director from the director’s commentary. Do you have a website recommendation that would explain how one could properly format that in their ‘Works Cited’ section? –M.G. Esteemed TWEEDLE, The answer will depend somewhat on what citation guide you are using—usually Chicago, MLA, or APA. Because you work in the arts, I’m going to assume that APA is not your format and move on to the others. MLA is probably your citation style if you are using parenthetical citations in the paper, with a works cited list at the end. MLA does not give a specific format for citing director commentary on DVD, but here is an excellent—if I do say so myself—paradigm to follow: Gondry, Michel and Charlie Kaufman. Audio commentary. Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. Dir. Gondry. Perf. Jim Carrey, Kate Winslet, and Kirsten Dunst. Focus Features, 2004. DVD. (Remember to use a hanging indent for works cited entries!) To break that down, all participants in the commentary are listed first. If you are citing a specific quote in your paper, then do introduce the speaker of that particular snippet in the body of your paper. The parenthetical citation would look something like this, for instance: (Gondry, 2004). The director is always indicated after the film title, but I also included what MLA calls “other data that seem pertinent”—here, the marquee performers. You might also want to include the screenwriter or producer, for instance. These would also go between the title and distributor, after the director. If your film has...